Effects of luteolin-rich chrysanthemum flower extract on purine base absorption and blood uric acid in Japanese subjects
Background and objective: Chrysanthemum flowers are consumed as fresh condiments, herbal teas, and processed foods in Japan and Taiwan. They contain luteolin as a major polyphenol and are traditionally used for eye care. We previously demonstrated that the ingestion of Chrysanthemum flower extract (CFE) for 1 month reduced serum uric acid levels. However, the findings obtained were considered to be biased because the study was performed by a CFE manufacturer. Therefore, we herein conducted a clinical trial on CFE on a larger scale and examined its effects on purine base absorption from the intestines, which represents an effective approach for reducing serum uric acid levels.
Methods: Both studies were performed as randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and CFE (100 mg) containing 1 mg of luteolin was used as the active sample. We enrolled 44 healthy Japanese men and women with 6.0 to 7.9 mg/dL serum uric acid. All subjects were randomly allocated to an active group (n=22) or placebo group (n=22) using a computerized random number generator. In the purine base absorption study, CFE was ingested with a purine base-rich diet and serum uric acid levels were measured chronologically. In the 12-week consecutive ingestion study, CFE or placebo was administered between January and April 2021. Serum uric acid levels after 12 weeks were assessed as the primary outcome, and uric acid were measured before and after 4 weeks of the intervention as secondary outcomes. Blood, urine and body parameters were examined to evaluate the safety of CFE.
Results: Thirty-nine subjects completed the trial, and the per protocol set comprised 18 and 21 subjects in the active and placebo groups, respectively. In the single dosing study of CFE on subjects loaded by the purine base-rich diet, no significant changes were observed between the CFE and placebo groups. On the other hand, in the 12-week ingestion study, serum uric acid levels were significantly lower in the CFE group than in the placebo group. Laboratory tests revealed no abnormalities to suggest any side effects of CFE.
Conclusions: CFE (100 mg/day) containing 1 mg of luteolin reduced serum uric acid levels. CFE may be beneficial for improving hyperurichemia.
Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR: UMIN000042327
Foundation: The present study was funded by Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co., Ltd.
Keywords: Chrysanthemum, luteolin, uric acid, purine base
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