Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Thaumatococcus danielli (benth.) in streptozotocin induced diabetic Rats

Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Adewale Adetutu, Rasaq B POPOOLA, Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Peter Adegbola, Babatunde T Adesina


Background: The leaves of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benth.) have been traditionally used in folk medicine to treat malaria in Nigeria. However, there is no report on whether these leaves contain Nephroprotective activity. Thus, the ethanol leaf extract was investigated for Nephron-protective activity in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Methods: First, the LD50 of the leaf was determined using standard procedure. Rats were assigned to 5 groups (A-E) of five rats. Except for the control group, each group was made diabetic using Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg/b.wt. i p). The treated groups received 0.5 ml of glibenclamide (25mg/kg/b.wt, o.p), 250 and 500 mg/kg/b.wt, o.p of Thaumatococcus danielli respectively. After 14 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed under light anaesthesia. Data were expressed as Means ± S.D (n=5) and were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s test, values were considered significant at p<0.05. 

Results: The plant showed a LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg/b.wt in albino rats observed for 72 hours. A significant (p<0.05) decreased in serum Na+, Cl-, HCO-3, total protein, and an insignificant increase in K+, urea and creatinine level were observed in the diabetic group when compared with the normal group. Oral administration of plant extract and glibenclamide significantly (p<0.05) restored the electrolytes to near normal. Histological alterations such as glomerulonephritis, and tubules infiltration by inflammatory cells observed in diabetic control were also reversed.

Conclusion: This study suggests renal protective ability of the plant against impairment due to hyperglycemia.

Keywords: Streptozotocin, Thaumatococcus danielli, Nephroprotective, Glibenclamide, serum electrolytes.

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