Aegeline vs Statin in the treatment of Hypercholesterolemia: A comprehensive study in rat model of liver steatosis

A. Singh, S. Gowtham, L.N. Chakrapani, S. Ashokkumar, S.N. Kishore Kumar, V. Prema, R. Divya Bhavani, T. Mohan, Y.K. Sathyamoorthy

Abstract


Background: Aegeline (AG) is a natural hydroxyamide which has not been explored in depth for its potential applications in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Accordingly, in this study, the property of AG as antioxidant, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and an anti-aging component was explored. The hepatoprotective effect of AG on hypercholesterolemic rats was investigated for health care benefits as a hypocholesterolemic drug vs Atorvastatin (AV) for the first time.

Objective: The objective was to delineate the mechanism of action of AG in impeding high cholesterol diet (HCD) induced hepatic steatosis in a rat model with special reference to antioxidant status and expression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) mediated cell adhesion molecules.

Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The pathology group rats were fed with HCD for 16 weeks and treatment groups rats were fed with HCD for 12 weeks and further supplemented with AG/AV for another 4 weeks. In vivo and in vitro experiments were carried out to find out the relative markers of the pathological condition likely Malondialdehyde (MDA), Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), and CRP levels were determined. Standard biochemical parameters were carried out. The expression profile by Western blot analysis was performed to assess the levels of NF-κB, Interleukin 6(IL6) and vascular cell adhesion molecule1 (VCAM1), in the hepatic tissues of various experimental groups. Additionally, histopathological examination of liver tissue sections was carried out.

Results: AG administration effectively decreased the oxidative stress induced by HCD as evidenced by MDA levels. Furthermore, the lowered levels of Ox-LDL and CRP in AG administered rats deem it to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to AV, AG had a pronounced effect in down-regulating the expression of cell adhesion molecules.

Conclusion: Thus, this study validates AG to be an effective stratagem in bringing down the oxidative stress induced by HCD and can be deemed as an anti-hypercholesterolemic and anti-steatotic agent.

Keywords: Aegeline, Atorvastatin, liver, hypercholesterolemia, aging


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