9-cis β-carotene Inhibits Atherosclerosis Development in Female LDLR-/- Mice
Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown that diets rich in carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, administration of synthetic all-trans b-carotene was reported to have no effect on cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that the 9-cis b-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil inhibits atherogenesis and reduces plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels in mice.
Context and purpose of this study: We sought to study whether isolated 9-cis b-carotene inhibits atherogenesis in a murine model of atherosclerosis.
Results: Twelve-week-old female LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/-) were pretreated for 2 weeks with regular chow diet fortified with the alga Dunaliella powder, 9-cis β-carotene isomer, all-trans β-carotene isomer, or 9-cis retinoic acid, followed by 10 weeks of a high-fat diet with the same fortifications. In contrast to Dunaliella, 9-cis β-carotene did not inhibit the high fat diet-induced elevation of plasma cholesterol. In addition, diet fortification with Dunaliella powder, β-carotene isomers, or 9-cis retinoic acid did not change the plasma retinol or retinoic acid levels. Nevertheless, 9-cis β-carotene significantly inhibited atherogenesis compared to the control mice (39% reduction).
Conclusions: The results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene should be considered as an anti-atherogenic agent in the human diet.
Key words: Atherosclerosis, Dunaliella, 9CBC, LDLR-/- mice
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Copyright (c) 2015 Noa Zolberg Relevy, Ralph Rühl, Ayelet Harari, Itamar Grosskopf, Iris Barshack, Ami Ben-Amotz, Uri Nir, Hugo Gottlieb, Yehuda Kamari, Dror Harats, Aviv Shaish
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