Effects of Nut Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Diseases
Background: Intervention and epidemiological studies have shown that nut consumption has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, and hyperlipidemia. The aim of this review is to investigate the effects of nut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart diseases. In addition, we investigated possible mediating mechanisms through which nuts act with health protective effects, which could have a preventive effect on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery diseases.
Method: We collected accredited international investigations, whether original, review, meta-analysis that published data in Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and Research Gate databases.
Result:Some human studies and most animal and laboratory studies reported that favorable effects of nut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are through their nutrient profile including polyphenols, unsaturated fatty acid, vitamins, phytosterols, minerals, fibers, and protein. Nut nutrient profile could act through reduction inflammation, inhibition oxidative stress, gut microbiota modification, improvement of endothelial function, modulating gene expression, miRNA, adipokines, insulin secretion, lipid and glucose metabolism, and decreasing cholesterol absorption.
Conclusion:Nuts have favorably acted on lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, vascular health, and weight control. Furthermore, human clinical trials are needed to find the exact and most effective pathways by which nuts prevent or reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
Keywords: Nut Consumption, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, hyperlipidemia
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