Oil emulsion from Plukenetia huayllabambana (Sacha inchi) modifies nitric oxide and leptin in the liver and antioxidant and inflammation markers in the adipose tissue in obese rats
Background: Obesity is characterized by excessive accumulation of adipose tissue and is associated with higher risk of metabolic diseases and other comorbidities. Efficacious strategies including a diet high in “functional foods” are promising. Plukenetia huayllabambana known as Sacha Inchi (SI), is a legume which seeds are rich in proteins, tocopherols, and fatty acids such as omega-3 (ω-3). The latter has emerged as a potential protective nutrient against the cardiometabolic risks associated with obesity. Omega-3 changes the membrane lipid profile of hepatic and adipose cells triggering the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. However, there are few reports in relation to the effect of these oils in inflammatory and stress response related to obesity. In this sense, the present study evaluated the effect of SI oil emulsion on nitric oxide and leptin levels in the liver and some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue from the rodent obesity model.
Methods: Six groups were formed: Not obese control group (Noc), obese control (Oc), two groups treated with the emulsion of SI oil (Os1:0.25g ω-3/day; Os2:0.5g ω-3/day), one obese group treated with atorvastatin (Oa) and one group treated with atorvastatin plus the emulsion of SI oil (Oas2).
Results: Os1 and Os2 lowered nitric oxide and increased liver leptin levels. In the adipose tissue, the superoxide dismutase and reducing antioxidant power increased significantly in Os1 and Os2 groups. The anti-inflammatory marker IL-4 wasalso increased in Os2, Oa and Oas2 compared to the Oc and IL-10 increased in Oas2 group.
Conclusion: Our study suggests that the emulsion of SI oil can modify the inflammatory and stress responses associated with obesity and it can be incorporated as a promising functional food.
Keywords: Inflammation, leptin, obesity, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, SI oil emulsion.
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