Effect of cassava on proximate composition, insulin index, glycemic profile, load, and index in healthy individuals: a cross-sectional study
Background: The major challenge in Africa is the growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome which has been attributed to changing lifestyles in developing countries. The impact of the commonly available staple starchy food; eaten in this environment may also be a factor contributing to growing concerns of metabolic syndrome. Hence, the need to assess the affordable staple starchy foods. Cassava is the most consumed staple starchy food in our environment; therefore, our study evaluated its impact on glycaemic and insulin response in consumers.
Aim: To determine Insulin Index (II), glycaemic profile (GP), glycaemic load (GL) and Glycaemic Index (GI), incremental glucose peak value (IGPV), and glycaemic profile index (GPI) of cassava food meals.
Methods: Participants ingested three cassava processed products (cassava dough [fufu], chips [Abacha], and flakes [garri] (the equivalent of 50g glucose) and 50 g of reference meal (glucose solution). Fasting and post-prandial samples were taken for blood glucose and insulin however sample for glucose was taken at intervals of 30 mins to a maximum of 180mins and 120 mins for insulin, respectively.
Result: The GI for cassava dough, flakes and chips were 93.26; 95.92 and 91.94, respectively. Their glycaemic load was 46.62; 47.96 and 45.97, respectively. The glycaemic profile index was 37.34; 41.41 and 46.19, respectively. In addition, the insulin index was 55.83; 69.36 and 97.02. The proximate analysis showed protein, moisture, fibre, fat, ash, and carbohydrate content as follows the cassava (%) (crude form) 1.075%; 72.00%; 0.80%; 0.58%; 0.35%; 25.07%, Chips 1.44%; 59.13%; 0.73%; 1.71%; 36.83%, flakes 1.82%; 67.36%; 0.15%; 0.91%; 0.25%; 39.64% and dough 1.56%; 67.51%; 0.21%; 0.52%; 0.20%; 30.22% respectively.
Conclusion: II, GP, GL, and GI of cassava dough (fufu), cassava flakes(garri)and cassava chips (Abacha) were found to be high. Unregulated dietary intake in adults may lead to metabolic diseases.
Keywords: Glycaemic index, Glycaemic load, Glycaemic profile, Cassava, Makurdi
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