Nanoencapsulation and identification of phenolic compounds by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS2 of an antioxidant extract from Opuntia atropes
Background: Nanoencapsulation is a technique that protects bioactive compounds such as polyphenolic compounds from environmental factors, through a biopolymer that acts as a wall system. Cladodes of O. atropes are an important source of polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids being the most abundant, these are mainly in the form of glycosides and their consumption has been related to a decrease in glucose and lipid profile through the elimination of intracellular radicals.
Purpose of the study: To study the formulation and process parameters that allow obtaining the best experimental conditions to nanoencapsulation and protect the polyphenolic compounds of the O. atropes extract.
Methods: Wall materials applied for nanoencapsulation (soy protein isolate, calcium caseinate , and maltodextrin). A Box Behnken 33 design was used; wall material extract of O. atropes (1/1, 2.5 / 1, 4/1), temperature (95, 105 and 115 ° C) and spray (40, 70 and 100%), to evaluate the yield, feeding speed, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, phenolic acids, flavonoids, DPPH• and ABTS•+. Polyphenolic compounds were identified by UPLC-Q / TOF-MS2.
Results: Maltodextrin presented better properties in the encapsulation of the extract of O. atropes. The Box Behnken 33 design made it possible to identify the treatment with the appropriate quality characteristics for the nanoencapsulation process; Formulation 2.5 / 1 (maltodextrin / O. atropes extract), 115 ° C and 100% spray, to obtain 85.22% yield, feeding speed of 9 mL / h, the particle size of 154.77 nm, 55.69 % encapsulation efficiency, phenolic acids of 0.95 mg GAE / g, flavonoids of 7.02 mg QE / g, and antioxidant activity in DPPH• of 0.29 mg GAE / g and ABTS•+ of 0.45 mg GAE / g. The polyphenolic profile was characterized, and it was confirmed that nanoencapsulation protects some isomers of isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnosido-7-O- (rhamnosyl-hexoside) and p-coumaric acid 4-O-glucoside.
Conclusion: Maltodextrin is an excellent encapsulating material of the O. atropes extract, the formulation and process conditions that favored all the response variables were identified and it was shown that nanoencapsulation protects the polyphenolic compounds.
Keywords: O. atropes extract, nanoencapsulation, polyphenolic profile, UPLC-Q / TOF-MS2.
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