Gender difference in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without albuminuria, a matched case-control study
Background: Women with type 2 diabetes are more susceptible to coagulopathy disorders and endothelial dysfunction. One possible explanation is the effects of different sex hormones in inflammatory conditions. Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity has been observed as a possible predisposing factor for coagulopathy disorders and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effect of gender on PAI-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and albuminuria has not been studied sufficiently.
Objectives: In this study, we examined whether changes of PAI-1 activity according to the albuminuria state in patients with type 2 diabetes are different in males and females.
Materials and Methods: A matched case-control study was performed among participants with T2D, as 38 microalbuminuric patients were matched with 38 normoalbuminuric patients who were similar in age and body mass index (BMI). PAI-1 activity was compared between the two groups with and without gender stratification.
Results: PAI-1 activity in microalbuminuric women was higher in comparison to that of the normoalbuminuric controls (P-value < 0.05). There was no significant difference in PAI-1 activity between macroalbuminuric and normoalbuminuric men. In women with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria, PAI-1 activity was independently and signiﬁcantly associated with urinary albumin excretion.
Conclusions: Gender differences in PAI-1 activity, seen in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, are a possible explanation for the higher incidence of vasculopathy in women with type 2 diabetes
Keywords: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; coagulopathy; microalbuminuria; type 2 diabetes; gender
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