Targeting biofilm inhibition using Quercetin – Interaction with bacterial cell membrane and ROS mediated biofilm control
Background: Quercetin is an active nutraceutical ingredient widely distributed in foods, vegetables, fruits, and more. Quercetin is a versatile functional food with extensive protective effects against many infectious and degenerative diseases due to their antioxidant activities. Apsergillus niger is a filamentous fungus and the most abundant mold found in the environment. This fungus has been the source of several bioactive compounds and industrial enzymes through biotransformation.
Aim: In this report we emphasized the potential of Aspergillus species for the selective conversion of rutin to quercetin, which involved stereoselective and regiospecific reactions with enhanced production and minimization of the formation of toxic wastes. This fungal microbe was able to transform the complex structure of rutin to quercetin with remarkable catalytic activity for the reaction with high product yield. The quercetin produced demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation and eradicate established biofilm involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicative of membrane activity. These results suggest quercetin may have implications in biofilm control targeting reactive oxygen species as a novel therapeutic strategy.
Methods: Quercetin was synthesized by microbial biotransformation recruiting Aspergillus niger. The synthesis of quercetin was compared with the chemical process. Furthermore, the quercetin produced by the biotransformation process was characterized by high performance thin layer liquid chromatography. The quercetin produced was assessed for biological activities. The antimicrobial activity, hemolytic activity, inhibition of biofilm by crystal violet staining, and cell viability by confocal laser scanning microscope was assessed. The membrane interaction effect and oxidant scavenging effect by DPPH, Intracellular ROS release, and lipid peroxidation was measured.
Results: Quercetin produced by microbial transformation demonstrated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by effectively inhibiting the growth and dispersion of preformed biofilms. Quercetin demonstrated a significant free radical scavenging activity and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Significant release of reactive oxygen species was observed in bacterial cells.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the bio transformed quercetin exhibited disruptive potential of biofilm formation by preventing cell surface attachment and biofilm growth. Therefore, it can be suggested that the major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing the consumption of quercetin rich foods.
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