Polyphenol Compounds of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa [Scheff.] Boerl) Up-regulated Caspase-3 and Apoptosis Index in Balb/c Strain Mice
Background : Polyphenol compounds of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa [Scheff.] Boerl)(PMD) are potentially to be used as anticancer by scavanging radical molecules. The effect in vivo is still limited in Indonesia.
Purpose : The research was aimed validate the activity of PMD in increasing caspase-3 expression and apoptosis in Balb/c mice induced by Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP).
Methode : Posttest control group was implemented and used by 40 Balb/c mice at the age of 1-2 week with body weight of 20-30 g. The tumor induction was done mice by using BaP. The animals were randomized into 2 groups, called the control group and PMD treatment group by given dosage 50mg. Lung tumor growth was assessed by surgery at week of 8th, 17th, and 26th. The results of caspase-3 expression and apoptotic index from IHC-TUNEL staining were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, One-way ANOVA, and Post hoc test LSD with significant level of p<α (0,05). This research was approve by Ethical Clearance
Results: Oral administration of 50mg PMD was significantly increased caspase-3 expression and apoptotic index by treatment group animal at week of 8th, 17th, and 26th. Carcinogenesis incidence in control group were respective found about 2,32±0,26 and 3,93±0,46 at 8th and 26th week, respectively, while in treatment group were 1,88±0,38 and 0,88±0,22 (p=0,000). The apoptotic index in control group was 0,00±0,00 at 8th week and 0,92+0,22 at 26th week, whilst in treatment group were 1,12±0,71 and 2,02±1,05 (p=0,000). In control group, the caspase-3 expression at 8th and 26th week were 0,28±0,17 and 0,56±0,16, respectively, then in treatment group were 0,60±0,14 at 8th week and 2,52±0,33 at 26th week (p=0,000).
Conclusion : The treatment of PMD was effectively induce in Balb/c mice cell apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and thus increased apoptotic index. It shows that PMD have anticancer activity to inhibit lung carcinogenesis in Balb/c mice.
Keywords : polyphenol, mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa [Scheff.] Boerl), cell proliferation, apoptotic index, Balb/c strain mice, Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP).
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