Protection of renal function by four selected plant extracts during Plasmodium berghei infection

Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Kazeem Iyanda


Background: Weakening of renal function from reactive oxygen species generated during malaria infection is one of the prominent causes of death in prevalent regions. The potential toxicity of free radical generated by malaria parasites are counteracted by a large number of cytoprotective phytochemicals. Therefore, this study examined the influence of extracts of five selected antimalarial plants (Azadirachta indica, Parquetina nigrescens, Citrus paradisi, and Khaya senigalensis) on reduction of inflammation in renal tissue, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels during malaria infection using Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice. For in vivo assay, mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and plant extracts were subsequently administered orally at 100 mg/kg body weight once a day for 17 consecutive days. The chemo-suppressive and prophylaxis effects of the plant extracts against P. berghei were investigated and compared with those of standard antimalarial drug, chloroquine. Tail bleeding was performed to check the percentage parasitaemia by making a thin film smear on a slide, stained in Giemsa. The numbers of parasited cells against the unparasitised cells were counted using a microscope. The effect of malaria infection on renal tissue was assessed by histological analysis and measurement of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in plasma. At 100 mg/kg per body weight, aqueous extract of K. senegalensis, A. indica, C. paradisi and P. nigrescens exhibited significant (p<0.05) percentage inhibition and chemo-suppressive effects in comparison with the chloroquine treated mice. The result of the untreated group showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of plasma urea while the level of the groups treated with plants extract stabilized the level of urea and creatinine in the blood. Also there was a pathological lesion on the kidney tissue of untreated group whereas the group treated with aqueous extract of A. indica, Khaya senegalensis and C. paradisi showed no lesion. It can be established that the extracts can protect and preserve renal function during malaria infection. These findings justified the use of the extracts in traditional medicine practice, for the treatment of malaria infection.  

Keywords: Plasmodium berghei, antimalarial plants, renal function, antiplasmodium

Full Text: [Abstract] [Full Article]

DOI: 10.31989/ffhd.v5i10.194


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Copyright (c) 2015 Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Kazeem Iyanda

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