Formulation of gluten-free cupcake with hydrocolloids for people with Celiac disease
Background: The development of gluten-free products is a great challenge for manufactures aiming to make baked products have a similar composition to their gluten-containing counterparts. They routinely use commercial and vegetable additives (rice flour and cassava starch), which are gluten free. Due to the fact that most of these products in Venezuela are imported and thus expensive, the prominence of celiac disease increases by 4% every year. This work aimed to develop a filled cupcake formulation with the use of natural and synthetic gluten-free hydrocolloids for those with celiac disease.
Methods: Two mixture designs, one with rice flour and one with cassava flour, were examined to identify which flour would give the cupcake the best consistency. The flours were mixed with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and vegetable fat (emulsifier) to see which proportion of ingredients was best-suited for the final product. The response variables of adhesiveness, cohesiveness, hardness, and gumminess were used to develop a texture profile. Two formulations were then obtained based on desirability ratings, and then evaluated based on the acceptability of 50 celiac patients. The physical, chemical and microbiological characterization, along with the storage stability of the selected formulation, was evaluated. The shelf life of the cupcake was determined by evaluating the texture profile, acceptability and microbiological parameters during 21 days at three temperatures (25 °C, 35 °C and 45 °C).
Results: The formulation with the greatest desirability in our population had the lowest gliadin content (0.231ppm), the lowest production cost, and showed a decrease in acceptability as time and temperature increased. The shelf life of the cupcakes was estimated to be 14 days when stored at at an average temperature of 28 °C.
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that it possible to produce a low-cost, high-calorie filled cupcake for people with celiac disease to consume.
Keywords: Hydrocolloids, gluten-free filled cup cake, gluten, compound flours, celiac disease
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